The emergence of novel diseases in the contemporary society which has been attributed to the development of poor eating habits, activity level and poverty has augmented in the contemporary society.
This has called for the emergence of newer and better methods to cope with these diseases in terms of maintenance, treatment and prevention. This is what has brought about the emergence of urgency care which entails ambulatory healthcare provided to patients under pre planned basis. According to Walker, Tolentine and Teach (2007: 247-253) this care has long been in existence since time immemorial when people used to visit traditional health consultants for advise. However this policy gained recognition in the 1970s when significant expansion and growth of the healthcare industry expanded bringing about the emergence of managed care organization. Since then intensified campaigns particularly in developed countries have been done and new technologies to support this sector have been pumped in either from the federal governance or non governmental organizations. According to Blank and Burau (2007: 54-66) reformers viewed it as a program to enhance equity in the provision of healthcare other than healthcare exclusion based on aspects such as your origin, race, colour and financial background. Universal healthcare in the contemporary society is provided for using Medicaid, Medicare and also other insurance forms as observed by Saltman, Bankauskaite and Vrangbaek (2009). Different health care systems categorized in to four models; the Bismarck, Beveridge, the health insurance which is national wide and also the out of pocket model as according to Tritter, Koivusalo and Olila (2009). The Beveridge and the Bismarck models are the most commonly used in healthcare today. In the policy of the Beveridge healthcare is provided to all individuals by the federal government through funds collected on taxation. These healthcares are solely owned by the government but incorporate both government and private employees. These policies though helpful particularly for the families that are not well up financially has been observed to have low costs per capita since funding is exclusively done by the government hence substandard services are often provided. This is a common policy of health among the Great Britain countries and in some Scandinavian countries among other Europeans countries. In the Bismarck model common among the Americans healthcare is provided through the insurance system where certain amount of money is deducted in your total income and is used to cater for your health once you get ill. In this case these insurance systems cover virtually everyone and they are not profit making though operated by private healthcare practitioners. Although these universal health care policies have tried to expand their services globally they have faced many problems particularly in management of finances and diseases particularly with the increment of aged persons who equally must be catered for though not earning any income (Belcon, Ahmed, Younis & Bongyu: 2009, 40-74). They also have a problem in structuring since they incorporate both government and private employees who have divergent views about making profits hence a lot of impunity due to the vulnerability of receiving kickbacks, making fictitious diagnosis and also offering wrong consultancy advices. Further they have questionable quality assurance for the services they offer evidenced by majority of complain from clients due to poor health outcomes (Bjorn & Gunnar: 2004, 1-105). These healthcare programs have not however been successfully implemented in the developing countries due to these effects of these problems. This essay focuses a great deal on these problems and their contribution to the failure of universal health systems succeeding in developing countries as they have in developed countries as this will give a basis to future resolutions to these problems.
Financial constrains experienced by universal healthcare coverage systems in developing countries
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